India is the second largest producer of horticulture crops i.e. fruits, vegetables, spices, etc. Its share in the world’s fruit and vegetable production is about 12 percent. One of the most sought-after agri commodities in the guava market in India, which has gained a lot of popularity in the last few years. Therefore, the mandi trade of horticulture fruits has rapidly increased across the country. There is a lot of demand for guava grown in India and foreign countries. Consequently, there has been an increase in the export of guava in the last 8 years.
Guava Production in India: Guava Market in India
India is a major producer of guava, contributing 25 metric tonnes to 45% of the world’s guava production. Indonesia and China are the second and third largest producers, respectively, contributing 7% and 5% of production. As per the reports till 2019, India tops the Guava production with 5% annual growth. Thailand has become the top exporter with 15% annual growth while China has become the largest importer with 15% annual growth.
Uttar Pradesh is the major contributor to production, followed by Punjab, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. While farming is gaining popularity in recent times, harvesting has increased by 64% in India. Guava production in India has grown by 55% over the past four decades. In Tamil Nadu, it is cultivated mainly in Madurai, Salem and Dindigul.
Guava Season in India
Guava is cultivated throughout the year in Andhra Pradesh and the peak season for growing guava in North India is from August to December. August to September is for the rainy season harvest, November to December is for winter harvest, and March to April is for spring harvest. However, in Tamil Nadu, the peak guava season is in April-May and October-November. If we compare the crops of the rainy and winter season, then the yield can be higher in the winter season. The season of guava fruit in India varies from state to state. For example, in Andhra Pradesh, the guava season lasts throughout the year, while in Arunachal Pradesh, the guava growing season is from July to October.
In India, guava is cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh. In 2019-20, the area under guava was 292 thousand hectares and 4361 thousand metric tons were produced. According to the National Agriculture Board, guava was cultivated in an area of 94 thousand hectares in 1991-21, it increased to 155,000 hectares in 2001-02, while the production had increased from 11 lakh tonnes to 17 lakh tonnes. In 2022-2023, the quantity of guava produced in India is estimated to be 4.92 million metric tonnes. That is more than the previous financial year.
Guava varieties grown in India are in great demand in Bangladesh, Nepal, Netherlands, UAE, Iran, Oman, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia. In 2021-22, India exported guava worth more than Rs. 15 crores. According to the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, the export of guava from India has registered a growth of 260% since 2013. It increased from US$ 0.58 million in April-January 2013-14 to US$ 2.09 million in April-January 2021-22 i.e. more than Rs. 150 million.
Guava Varieties: अमरूद की किस्में
There are about 30 varieties of guava in India, although white guava and pink guava are the most commonly cultivated varieties. Allahabad Safeda and Sardar varieties dominate the Indian mandis due to their high yield potential, good quality, and their worldwide demand. Among all the varieties of guava, Allahabad Safeda is the best variety of guava in India. Other well-known varieties of Indian guava are Sardar (Lucknow 49), Pant Prabhat, Lalit, Striped, Spotted, Arka Mridula, and Khaja (Bengal Safeda).
The Lucknow variety of guava is cultivated in Nuzvid, Vijayawada, and Andhra Pradesh. The Safeda variety is produced in the region of Odugathur, Bangalore, and Tadipatri. Allahabad variety is produced in Madurai, Theni, and Dindigul. In Taiwan, Arka Kiran varieties are grown in the region of Tadipatri and Vijayawada. Pink guava varieties are mostly used in the food processing industries because of their natural sweetness and high pulp content.
- Allahabad Safeda
- Lucknow-49 (Sardar Guava)
- Pant Prabhat
- Arka Mridula
- Allahabad Surkha
- Spot door (Chittidar Guava)
- Striped door (Dharidar Guava)
- White (Shweta)
- Arka Amulya (Bedana – Allahabad Safeda)
- Safed Jam (Allahabad Safeda – Kohir)
- Khaja (Bengal Safeda)
New guava varieties like Taiwan, VNR, Thai Guava, Taiwan Pink, Diamond, and Japanese Guava are in great demand abroad.
BNR Variety of Thai Guava
The BNR variety of Thai guava is rich in nutrients such as vitamin C, fiber, folic acid and has medicinal properties. Its consumption is considered good for diabetic patients. At the same time, it starts giving fruit early compared to the native and other guava varieties. It starts bearing fruits within 18 months. If the garden is maintained properly, fruits can be produced for about 20-25 years.
When the trees of this guava variety are ready, about 40 kg production can be taken from each tree annually. The harvesting of Thai guava starts from October and lasts till February-March. Also, the fruit does not get spoiled till 20 days from the date of harvesting. Hence it becomes easy to take it to the mandis. It can be sold in Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Kochi, Bangalore, Indore as well as to foreign countries like the UK.
Famous Guava of Sawai Madhopur
Sweet guava of Sawai Madhopur district of Rajasthan is famous in the country and abroad. In Sawai Madhopur district, farmers planted guava orchards in 15 thousand hectares at Surwal, Karmoda, Daundari, Mathurapur, Atunkalan, Gudhasi, Sherpur-Khilchipur, Shyampura, Olwara, Padhana, Mainpura, Ajnoti, Bharoti, Selu, Rawal, Gangapurcity, Bamanwas, etc. This is the only district of Rajasthan where 75 percent of the guava horticulture is done. Guava is supplied to 10 states including Delhi, Haryana, and Punjab. The annual turnover is more than five billion.
If you are a guava trader in guava market in India, you can download the Bijak agri commodity trading app to get the latest guava mandi rates. Also, you can deal with trusted traders at the best rates across India. Want to know about more similar agri trading commodities? Let us know through the comments below.
Also Read: Evolution Of Agriculture Sector Since Independence