Mango is one of the most relished fruits in India and all over the world. Mangoes are native to the Indian subcontinent but they were actually introduced to the world by the Portuguese in the 15th century. It is them who took the Indian mangoes to the western world, to Africa, the Caribbean, and America.
India is now home to more than 1000 varieties of mangoes. The fruit’s annual output touched 20.26 million tons in 2019-20 which is almost half of the total mango produced in the world. India also exports mangoes to different parts of the world. In 2020, United Arab Emirates accounted for the highest value of Indian mango exports, followed by the United Kingdom. According to APEDA, India’s export of fresh mangoes has increased from 20,302 tons in 1987-88 to 46,789.60 tons in 2019-20. Through this article, we’ll get to know some mango export numbers, top export varieties, challenges involved with Indian mango exports, and much more.
Why is India not exporting more?
Even though mango export has been increasing steadily, if we compare the number with India’s total output and the world’s export market, it will appear to be very small. One of the reasons why India is not exporting much is that most of the international trade in fresh mangoes happens within short distances. As per a report by the National Horticulture Board, India and Pakistan predominantly supply mangoes to West Asia whereas Southeast Asian countries source them from the Philippines and Thailand.
The world’s largest importer of mangoes, the US had once banned imports from India due to the use of pesticides. Even though the ban was lifted in 2007, the exports are still low. This is because each shipment needs to be cleared by a US phytosanitary inspector first. Recently, Covid 19-led restrictions made it difficult for the US inspector to come to India for inspections. Also, Indian exporters were hesitant to send the shipment as they feared that once it reached US shores, the inspector would reject it and the whole consignment would go waste. APEDA is now taking measures to deal with such problems and push India’s mango exports.
Domestic & global overview of Mango exports
There are more than 100 mango-producing countries in the world growing thousands of mango varieties. Asian countries like India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, China, Thailand, and Indonesia account for 67% of the global mango production. India alone contributes about 38% and is therefore considered the world’s largest mango-producing country. The maximum production of mangoes in India takes place in Uttar Pradesh followed by Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, and Gujarat.
Out of the total mangoes produced in India, less than 1% constitutes mango exports. This indicates a high level of domestic consumption of mangoes. India has a 12% share in the global mango export market.
Global mango trade was non-existent prior to the 1960s. However, when it started, avocado and mango were among the top tropical fruits to witness the highest popularity. According to FAO, during the period between 1990 and 2017, the world import demand for mango grew at an annual growth rate of 10%, thereby driving up the export, wholesale and retail prices. Some of the key globally traded mango varieties include Tommy Atkins, Kent, Palmer, Irwin, Maya/Aya, and Indian varieties such as Alphonso, Kesar, Chausa, and Totapuri.
Most popular mango export varieties
When it comes to the production and export of Alphonso mangoes, India has no competitor in the whole world. Due to certain climatic characteristics, this exotic variety of mango grows only in India. It is cultivated in the Maharashtra region of Ratnagiri, Konkan, and Raigad. India exports it to UAE, Kuwait, China, UK, Germany, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Japan. In 2017, $15 million of this variety was exported.
Totapuri is the top export variety of Indian mangoes. It is exported to more than 40 countries across the world including Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, Suden, and Yemen. In the year 2017, Totapuri mangoes worth $19 million were exported majorly by Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. However, West Bengal, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh are also the prime export states of these mangoes.
The largest quantity of Kesar mangoes are grown in Junagadh and Amreli of Gujarat in India. In 2017, mango exports worth $4.8 million were recorded for Kesar mangoes and the major export countries were the United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, France, and Kuwait.
Badami mangoes, also known as the Alphonso of Karnataka, are exported to countries like Saudi Arabia, France, Germany, UAE, UK, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and Singapore. They contribute about 3% to the overall export of mangoes.
Banganpalli or Safeda mangoes worth $549835 were exported from Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Maharashtra in 2017. Major export countries were Canada, Norway, Bahrain, UAE, the UK, and Netherland.
Export of processed mangoes from India
Apart from fresh mangoes, mango exports also take place in the form of mango pulp and mango slices. Mango pulp is prepared from selected varieties of mangoes like Alphonso, Kesar, and Totapuri. This smooth and thick textured mango pulp is prepared from fully ripened mango fruits. It retains all the juice and fibrous matter that occurs naturally in a mango. The mango pulp is used for making juices, jams, puddings, ice creams, bakery filings, yogurts, and various kinds of beverages.
In India, the two main clusters of mango pulp are present in Krishnagiri in Tamil Nadu and Chitoor in Andhra Pradesh. They have around 65 processing units and a good backward linkage of Totapuri and Alphonso mangoes. Some mango processing units also exist in Maharashtra and Gujarat. During the year 2020-21, India exported 98,369.74 million tons of mango pulp worth ₹714.41 crores. Mango pulp is mainly exported to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Netherland, and Yemen Republic.
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